Sunday, February 16, 2020

Psychology (William James's basic idea) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Psychology (William James's basic idea) - Essay Example Certain sequences of pure experiences constitute physical objects, and others constitute persons; but one pure experience (say the perception of a chair) may be part both of the sequence constituting the chair and of the sequence constituting a person. Indeed, one pure experience might be part of two distinct minds, as James explains in a chapter entitled "How Two Minds Can Know One Thing." Simplifying and to a large extent over-ruling James's ideas came Sigmund Freud and his concept of psychoanalysis. Freud based his notions of the unconscious mind as a reservoir for repressed memories of traumatic events that continuously influence conscious thought and behaviour. Freud divided the state of mental activity to exist at three levels: the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. He considered Id as the centre of our primitive instincts; something that caters to the business of gratifying our desires and pleasures. To Freud, the new-born infant is the personification of the Id and the Ego develops out of the Id as the child grows. The Ego acts as censor to the Id, checking the primitive desires for immediate gratification, and conflicts between the Id and the Ego can result in a person having neuroses. ... Related to these questionable assumptions of psychoanalysis are two equally questionable methods of investigating the alleged memories hidden in the unconscious: free association and the interpretation of dreams. If Freud said that the goal of therapy was to make the unconscious conscious, a younger colleague of his, Carl Jung, was to make the exploration of this "inner space". For Jung, an empirical investigation of the realms of dream, myth, personality and soul represented the manner to understand the "inner space" of the human psyche. He regarded the encounter between the individual and the unconscious as the most important facet of this process. Jung held that human beings experience the unconscious through symbols encountered in all aspects of life: in dreams, art, religion, and the symbolic dramas we enact in our relationships and our day to day life. Essential to the encounter with the unconscious, and the reconciliation of the individual's consciousness with this broader world, is learning this symbolic language. Jung believed that only through attention and unprejudiced, flexible powers of thinking can the individual be able to harmonise his life with what he called as the "archetyp al forces". To undergo the individuation process, the individual must be open to the parts of oneself beyond one's own ego. The modern individual must pay attention to dreams, explore the world of religion and spirituality, and question the assumptions of the operant societal worldview. Alfred Adler examined human personality around the same time as Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud. They worked on some theories together until Adler rejected Freud's emphasis on sex, and maintained that personality difficulties are rooted in a

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Do elderly african americans trust their caucasian health care Research Paper

Do elderly african americans trust their caucasian health care providers Why or why not - Research Paper Example ere are also factors like lack of interpersonal communication, technical incompetency, ethnic differences which contribute towards the untrustworthiness and health care disparities (Lillie-Blanto et al 2000). Amongst the interpersonal skills, different linguistics builds communication barriers. Many of the providers are not familiar or adept with languages of their patients and their respective cultures. These attributes should be present as they, along with cultural competency, are vital for building a connection between them. According to the participants of the research, Understanding African Americans Views of the Trustworthiness of Physicians, their relationship with their doctors was not empathically interactive. Rather their doctors treated them with indifference and at times they â€Å"barely spoke to them† and without any examination suggested prescriptions. The callous and unsympathetic attitude of these providers led the patients to have a preference for ones who belonged to the same ethnic, racial and cultural background as theirs (A Jacobs et al 2006). Like the lack of communication and the insensitive attitude of the providers, their focus on profits also changes the African Americans perceptions about them. Similarly, another disconcerting rationale given is due to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in 1932, where black males were incorrectly diagnosed without legitimate treatment. Later on, it embedded the fear of experimentation in their minds of people and reinforced health disparities among African Americans and others (Centre for disease control and prevention). These genuine concerns of the people should be considered and actions must be taken. Health issues should not be neglected or taken lightly. Given the strong cultural believes and values of the elderly African Americans and their right to be equally accepted in the society, small measures initiated will go a long way. To build one strong relationship, it’s imperative to consider the

Saturday, January 25, 2020

An Appraisal Of Police Reforms In Kenya Criminology Essay

An Appraisal Of Police Reforms In Kenya Criminology Essay Police Services form part of the executive arm of the Government. Before the promulgation of the Constitution 2010, on 27th August 2010 they were referred to as Police Forces and were under the Ministry of State for Provincial Administration and Internal Security. The two Police Forces were the Kenya Police and the Administration Police Forces established under the repealed Police Act Chapter 84 and Administration Police Act Chapter 85 respectively. Together with other three sister departments in the Ministry, that is the NACADAA, the Government Press and the Provincial Administration, the five key departments are all answerable to one Accounting Officer under the Ministry. The Commissioner of Police has been the in charge of the Kenya Police Force while the Commandant of Administration Police, who before 27th August, 2010 operated under delegated authority  [1]  , has been in charge of the Administration Police Force. More often than not the Police have found themselves in crossroads with members of public and Civil Society Organizations. This has led to them being viewed as the key violators of Human Rights  [2]  . They have earned a title violators rather than protectors and keepers of Human Rights. The Alston Reports  [3]  on Judicial killings laid blame on Police on deaths and disappearance of youth without anybody accounting for them. Several shootings of innocent individuals have been associated with the Police guns. The duty imposed on Police of Protection of life and property has been reduced to perception that they are to eradicate life and property of innocent people. The experts on commission for enquiry and thinkers of reforms came up with recommendations in their report after the 2007-2008 Post Election Violence which associated most loss of life to the excessive use of force by police amongst other vices and omissions. Waki Report  [4]  indicate that the security forces were powerless against the violence. Often, when we think of police reforms, the people concerned many a times tend to either forget or neglect the primary reason and function of the police service right from the initial stage it was formed to where they focus it to be, which is of great importance and should always be taken seriously. Peaceful co-existence and calmness in the society is the recipe for experiencing and enjoyment of freedom and human rights. With breach of this, society is bound to be in a chaotic state, confusion and fear. This is why police work always comes in handy if professionally applied backed with strong laws and reliable independent judicial systems. The society creates laws and puts in place the justice system to deal with law breakers; police on the other hand has a responsibility to enforce these laws within the society for the purpose of sustaining peace and calmness. When a society enjoys relative peace and order, it signifies that people obey the laws laid down with offenders being subjected to justice promptly. Strict justice systems and societies law obedience always ease the work of police. You can institute police reform, you can reorganize service delivery but you cannot alter the fundamental principles of policing and police operations. Reformers and reform agendas must be cognizant of another reality that police officers and police services are delivering something that some people in the society are opposed to. No one wants to be a victim of crime. No one wants the law, criminal or regulatory, enforced on them.  [5]   Police reform or review will not make this disappear and no matter how you package or tidy up service delivery or the players, there will always be displeasure with the police. So we mostly find that the performance of any organization depends on the principles on which it is founded and the tempered actions of its officers. Violations of the founding principle of an organization lead to straying away hence corruption, inefficiency and partisan personnel who can easily be misused by influential who have personal interest of enriching themselves. It is because of this, that the police have found themselves being misused by politicians as they serve as agents of political executives rather than as an instrument of a democratic state. This leaves a weak police Service heavily reliant of its masters who politicize and destabilize the police hence vices. The police force had been marked with a reputation of applying the law selectively against opponents, whether political or personal, at the behest of person of influence. Impunity has reigned supreme and hence reforms appearing to be a distant reality. Security is a basic human right as it is underlined by Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As a member of the family of nations, Kenya subscribes to this Declaration. As a country, we regard security as a matter of national priority.  [6]  Security of persons as a basic human right is also one of the most significant factors contributing to the quality of communities worldwide. Security provides an enabling environment for citizens to live and work in, and it stimulates social, economic and political development.  [7]   Kenyas transition, and prospects of development, hinge to a great extent on the countrys ability to guarantee security within her borders. This is a goal that the current Government is committed to attain. It is also a good that many Kenyans are longing for.  [8]   It is against this background that there have been attempts by the Kenyan Government to institute police reforms. Though the Government had initiated the Police Reforms since 2004 when the NARC Government first came to power, on platforms of Reforms, these reforms were largely operational and administrative as they did not address the structural policy and legislative reforms that were fundamental in transforming the Police.  [9]   Consequently, the Government appointed the National Task Force on Police Reforms on the 8th May, 2009, led by The Hon. Justice (Rtd) Philip Ransley in Kenya Gazette Notice No.4790.1  [0]   The Task Force was mandated with the following Terms of References:-1  [1]   Examine the existing policy, institutional, legislative, administrative, and operational structures, systems and strategies and recommend comprehensive reforms taking cognizance of the recommendations contained in agenda 4; Kriegler, Waki and other Police related Reports so as to enhance police efficiency, effectiveness and institutionalize professionalism and accountability.(Special focus to be given to recommendations on Police Service Commission; Independent Police Oversight Authority; Policing Policy; and National Security Policy); Examine the existing competence, skills knowledge and attitudes of the Police at all levels and make recommendations aimed at enhancing shared core values, policing excellence and benchmarking against international best practices. Review the human resource management and development policies with a view to examine current standards and practices in recruitment, deployment, training, career progression, exit, post-exit management and recommend implementation of changes that enhance morale, meritocracy and professionalism; Review the tooling, logistical and technological capacity and recommend changes necessary to sustain modern security management, disaster management, conflicts and early warning/rapid response systems and joint operational preparedness strategy; Review the state of preparedness of the police to combat insecurity and other forms of emerging security challenges occasioned by national and international threats such as terrorism, piracy, organized gangs, drug/human trafficking, industrial espionage, cyber crime, money laundering, and economics crimes; Review and recommend strategies to harmonize and fast-track partnership between the community and security agencies in policing; Design a continuous monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to track police reform gains and consistency of policing needs; Recommend appropriate institutional arrangement to oversee the implementation of comprehensive police reforms; Prepare a draft Police Reforms Bill to embrace the comprehensive Police reform agenda; Make any other appropriate recommendations that add value to police reforms; and Develop a prioritized implementation matrix clearly categorizing the immediate, medium, and long- term police reforms and the attendant budgetary requirements. Within two and half months to submit to the President its findings and recommendations. The task Force submitted its report on October 2009 having made various recommendations summarized under four headings:-Professionalism, accountability, operational and administrative reforms and institutional policy and legislative reforms On 8th January,2010, the Government established the Police Reforms Implementation Committee charged with the responsibility of coordinating, supervising, providing, technical guidance, facilitation as well as mobilizing resources, communicating, monitoring and evaluation of reforms in the police.1  [2]   The promulgation of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 on 27th August, 2010 marked a milestone on the issue of the Police Reforms in Kenya.To crown it all, Article 243 to 2471  [3]  constitutionally provided a departure from the previous regime organizations of the police matters. 1.1. Objectives of the Study The study intends to appraise police reforms in Kenya and recommend the best approach to reforms, hence contribute to the process of reforming the police in Kenya to be more effective and accountable in their service. The research will also act as an informative tool and strengthen the knowledge of the readers, researchers, and any other interested parties. Specific objectives of the study were: To identify indicators of police reforms; To identify appropriate analysis and measurement tools to measurement the level of police reforms in Kenya; To gauge the level of police reforms and to benchmark with that of other countries; To recommend measures for the realization of police reforms in Kenya. 1.2 Problem Statement The following points summarize problem statement concerning police reform in Kenya that this research seeks to address: Not much has been done in terms of realistically appraising police reforms in Kenya. There is lack of continuous expert evaluations along the way. In certain cases, internal evaluations that are deficit of technical analysis are carried out, the reliability of the findings may be questionable; The police still have outdated colonial cultures and brutality with deep rooted corruption rate which is a concern of the public, the Kenya Government and the international community; Lack of professionalism; ineffective supervision and poor managerial skills; inadequate and oversight accountability and oversight mechanisms in the police; Slow pace of enactment of necessary legislations to speed up the reform process; 1.3. Scope of the Research It was necessary to clearly define boundaries of the research to focus on the objectives of the study and to eliminate ambiguities. The focus of the research was to assess the successes, failures and challenges of police reforms by identifying reform indicators and gauging reform activities using them. The goal was to shed light into the realities of police reform efforts by highlighting achievements and by benchmarking with other exemplary strides in Africa and the world. This research, being an appraisal, meaning judging the nature/value of the reform process or making considered opinion on quality/extent/status, the research dwelt on aspects that closely correlated with reform evaluation. 1.4. Theoretical Framework There are various theories which justify reforms. These theories explain the relationship between the ways things are and how they ought to be, the realisms and the idealisms. The Natural Law vie propound true law as the right reason in agreement with nature.1  [4]  That law is universal, eternal and unchanging and that there is only one source of law and the enforcer of this eternal and unchanging law is God. That law is a rule whereby man is induced to act or restrained from acting. Principles common in all natural law theories are that1  [5]  there are absolute values against which the validity of law should be tested. That there exists an order which is rational and which can be known by man. That man can become aware of the universal, eternal and comprehensible values, if he observes nature and understands it correctly. And that from these values man may derive appropriate value-statements. That, that which is good is in accordance with nature and which is evil contrary to nature. That a law which lacks moral validity is wrong and unjust. Positivism refers to a system of philosophy based on things that can be seen or proved rather than ideas. The basic premise of positivism lies in the derivation of positum meaning that the law is something posited or laid down. The positivist law argues thus that true law is law enacted by the sovereign and backed by sanctions1  [6]  :- Law is a social fact; The idea of law being a command emanating from a sovereign power; The idea that law must embody a medium of sanctions; The separation of law from morals or ethical concerns; That society must be in habitual obedience of the law; Idealism refers to the practice of forming or pursuing or believing in ideas, even when this is not realistic. It is the belief that ideas are the only things that are real or about which we can know anything.1  [7]   The theoretical framework of this study is therefore to be based on the natural and positive school of thoughts which are related in that positivism arose to answer defects in the naturalists understanding of law1  [8]  . But more to the ideas of the two theories, the study is based on idealisms, what ought to be rather than what is. 1.5. Conceptual Framework There are a number of concepts that explain policing e.g. problem-oriented policing, evidence-based policing, community policing, predictive policing and intelligence-led policing. This research proposes the framework of predictive policing to analyze police reforms in Kenya. Predictive policing is defined as any policing strategy or tactic that develops and uses information and advanced analysis to inform forward thinking crime prevention1  [9]  . Predictive policing concept involves data mining, geospatial prediction, statistical probability and social network analysis. Since this research involves much of data mining and intense use of statistical methods, the concept suits this research. Predictive policing approach originated from a number of sources including intelligence and business analytics2  [0]  . This approach was adopted because the criminal justice system in Kenya currently has inadequate tools and research to the development of evidence-based practices. This concept is embraced as the police services continue developing intelligence-led policing To be able to use this approach, the research proposes a boiling pot model with a pot of reform factors on a three stone hearth acting as pillars firing the reforms. The pillars support the police organization and energize management, administration and the entire police structures. These pillars are capacity legal environment, personnel, budget compensation, personnel, training equipment. The results of the boiling pot are reduced crime rate, observance of human rights, police-public cooperation, public acceptance of the police service, political independence of the police, incorruptibility and reachable police service with authority. Figure 1 The boiling pot model of police reform Source ¼Ã… ¡Author The boiling pot model was proposed in this research as an innovative way of explaining police reforms in the context of predictive policing since a lot has to be in place to facilitate boiling. The reform process needs support and should any one pillar crumble, effects are seen in the results which are squarely dependent on input from the pillars. Again, if the boiling heat goes down, expected results are delayed, half-realized or not achieved at all. Figure 1 illustrates police reforms boiling pot model. 1.6. Limitations of the Study There were obstacles that possibly limited the validity of results of this study to some extent. Limited time and hurdles of data collection ranging from resources to field visits were cumbersome. Questionnaire questions are possible sources of error; so great care in constructing them is essential if valid information is to be gained from the survey2  [1]  . Some of the interviewees declined to answer questions or were busy or lacked interest hence could give unreliable information. This research addressed this limitation, according to guidelines by Barbara and Robert (1980), A Practice Guide to Behavioral Research, pp. 20, using interview techniques like probes and other means of avoiding socially desirable response-statements and other undesirable interviewer/respondent interactions. Availability of data on police reforms is highly limited especially in Africa2  [2]  . Available police data from the Kenya Police and Administration Police is ad hoc and not systematically collected and cannot be very reliable in appraising the successes and failures of police reforms in Kenya. Chapter 2. Literature Review Berkeley2  [3]  notes: reform is such a strong word (which) is often misapplied in regard to police service delivery. Too often it becomes the term for what should be called organization or structure review. Reform is defined as a change for the better or improvement by removal of faults2  [4]  ; it means to fine-tune and restructure without radical changes2  [5]  . Police reforms therefore mean restructuring the police services with the aim of improving them; changing them for the better and fine-tuning the services. In respect to security sector reforms, SSR, police reform is defined as the transformation of a security system, including all the actors, their roles, actions and responsibility to manage and operate the system in a manner that is consistent with democratic norms and sound principles of good governance2  [6]  . 2.1. Police Reforms in Africa Policing in Africa is still inadequately documented and has been shaped by colonial rule that was greatly concerned with protecting interests of the colonial power compared to safeguarding safety and security needs of the people2  [7]  . After colonial rule mostly during the 1960s, development of more personal, impulsive and arbitrary neo-patrimonial rule played a role in shaping the police. Incumbent regimes utilized colonially inherited repressive capacity of the police to defend regime interests2  [8]  . Since many countries in Africa have faced internal civil war, brutality and destruction, the police became perpetrators, targets and casualties. The 2008 violence in Kenya saw role of Kenyan police forces with large scale brutality and extra-judicial killings in a large scale2  [9]  . Dynamics of police reform in Africa is understood within the context of policing environment for example in conflict-ridden areas, rural area policing, role of politics in reform process among others. In conflict areas, general policing is always seen as irrelevant or as part of the problem since more of military approaches are adopted. In such cases, new armed units which act as roving agents of repression and control3  [0]  are created to defend the interest of the power of the day. There are proofs of intimate connection between police and politics in Africa3  [1]  . Police reform is regarded a political endeavor and political interests are fundamental to the reform process. Police reforms envisaged in Africa involve changes in structure, function and legitimacy. Structurally police change from centralized to decentralized form; functionally the police change from emphasizing defense of regime to protection of citizens, and regarding legitimacy the change is from regime-based to people-driven legitimacy3  [2]  . Police Reforms in South Africa and the United States of America It is important to do comparative analysis of police reforms in Kenya with that in the USA and South Africa as benchmarks. The two countries are chosen as pinnacles of police reforms with South Africa giving a realistic African example. 2.2.1. Police Reform in South Africa Police reform in South Africa is understood within the unique political context. Apartheid system had racial status as its main feature and security institutions were organized in a similar way  [38]  39. South African Police and the judiciary were dominated by white officers at the senior level. Apartheid was known for brutality of security forces and widespread violation of human rights. During 1960 1990, about 78,000 people were detained without trial by the police because of political activism against apartheid  [40]  . Seventy-three executions in detention by police were recorded during that period of formal apartheid. In recent years, security forces were responsible for high levels of torture, extra-judicial executions and disappearance of pro-democracy activists. The coercion of unpopular racist laws created a deep crisis of legitimacy in the pre-reform criminal justice system in South Africa. In the late 1980s, the state of apartheid was in serious crisis forcing the police, army and bureaucracy to invent strategies, one being National Security Management System (NSMS) to defeat the liberation movements. The police and military suppressed protests during the State of Emergency declared in 1985 and there were mass arrests, trials, persecution, and murder. Police reform was shaped by negotiated political settlement after apartheid, that agreed to retain all employees of the apartheid government, police officers included. The settlement also created a Government of National Unity and Truth and Reconciliation Commission which dealt with some police abuses in apartheid. As negotiations were going on, the police were already involved in framing new arrangements for the management of public order and security of elections under the auspices of the National Peace Accord multi-party experience that gave the police a preview of the style required by democratic government. The police reform process was given highest priority in the first period of transition and state institutions relevant to effective combat of crime were put in place  [41]  . Mandela government had a challenge to build trust between state agencies, including the police, and the citizens. The police was given legitimacy of being associated with the new regime and was attached to repression of apartheid. Police-community relationship was to be built to allow the basic functionality of the police institution  [42]  . The initial steps to police reform in South Africa were shaped by clear strategic decision taken by the government with strong emphasis on accountability and oversight. In the second term of the democratically elected government, after political control and legitimacy has been achieved, the government started to emphasize the role of police in fight against crime. With many unresolved issues in initial stage of police reform, the government gave great importance to several strategic priorities and policies leading to great ideas in paper but inadequate capacity to implement policies in the police institution. Though South African experience of police reform is cited as a model for other African states, the process was laborious and often agonizing for members of the police organization  [43]  . 2.2.2. Police Reform in the United States of America Initial efforts of reform were through establishment of external commissions that outlined reforms and left the burden of implementation to the police. Important changes in policing, in respect to civil rights and constitutional law, were realized through a number of court decisions  [44]  3. Court decisions between 1961 and 1966, especially Mapp versus Ohio and Miranda versus Arizona, were highly influential and thus began to set national policing standards  [45]  3  [4]  . During the 1970s, special commissions were used to create changes in police and other law enforcement agencies. Permanent external oversight agencies were used to improve police accountability. The agencies focused on individual improvements3  [5]  and left out broader organizational issues that could result to long-term reform initiatives. Enactment of Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act in 1994 allowed for suits against law enforcement agencies with regard to abuses resulting into many departments signing memorandum of understandings to reform3  [6]  . The United States Department of Justice conducted investigation on abuse patterns in police and brought legal action to force changes. Less-than-lethal weapons like chemical sprays were introduced as alternatives to deadly force3  [7]  . Police reform encouraged police officers to try to deescalate situations with verbal warnings and persuasion and consider use of force continuum3  [8]  . 2.3. Key Lessons from South Africa and USA The following are clear from the two experiences3  [9]  : Substantial resistance to police reform efforts is highly expected from economic elite who gained from the old system and institutions which control public security apparatus; Sectors that feel insecure would champion for citizen-oriented policing; There is possibility of politicians taking selfish advantage of the reform process and thus violating the spirit of police reform; The government in place may form parallel police units that undermine development and legitimacy of the reform process or even favor particular police units compared to the others; In attempts to demilitarize the police, attention should be focused on composition, mission, doctrine and hierarchical separation of the police from military command; Participation of previously neglected groups in policing helps to ensure that policing is effectively representative of and responsive to the society. International actors can provide assistance with issues of composition and doctrine, as well as advice. To achieve effective reforms, there is need to strengthen and equip crim

Friday, January 17, 2020

Odyssey- Odysseus’s Behavior Essay

Odysseus’s behavior was ironic when he deliberately concealed part of Circe’s prophecy from his men because when Odysseus and his men went through Scylla, all of the men were scared and some of the men were killed. In the Odyssey it said that: â€Å"My men all blanched against the gloom our eyes were fixed upon that yawning mouth in fear of being devoured† (Homer886) This quote showed that Odysseus’s behavior was ironic because since he did not tell his men that they were going through Scylla so they were terrified. The men just saw this huge whirlpool in the middle of the sea and were not really pleased to hear that they were going through that and not knowing the outcome. They were very scared because the outcome could result in them dying. When the Odyssey was talking about when Odysseus’ men were getting killed The Odyssey said: â€Å"Then Scylla made her strike, whisking six of my best men from the shop. It happened to glace aft at ship and oarsmen and caught sight of their arms and legs, dangling high overhead† (Homer886). This quote is showing that Scylla ate six of Odysseus’ best men while they were traveling by her. This was the aftershock of Odysseus not telling his men that they were going to see Scylla in this journey and most likely get eaten. Yet again all of the me were ate only because Odysseus did not tell his men about the ending that they could of all been dead in the end. In conclusion, Odysseus’ behavior was ironic when he deliberately concealed part of Circe’s prophecy from his men because Odysseus did not tell his men that they would travel though her and get scared and eaten.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Malaria Disease - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1480 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2018/12/28 Category Medicine Essay Type Research paper Level High school Tags: Disease Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Malaria is one disease that has troubled the human race for quite a long time. Malaria claims over 500,000 diseases annually, with most of those being children below the age of five years. The treatment of malaria has experienced some considerable developments from when it was discovered that the disease was caused by a mosquito. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Malaria Disease" essay for you Create order This paper is wholly about malaria. The paper provides a brief history of malaria and then goes on to explain what causes malaria. The paper goes on to very prevalent issues that surround malaria such as malaria in pregnant women and such other things. The treatment for malaria is also provided. On this issue, the paper recommends on the best methods to treat malaria, among the many available. In coming up with all this material, the paper has utilized information from different credible sources. With this regard, referencing has been done accordingly. Brief history The history of malaria spans for a period of hundreds of years. The disease is thought to have first been witnessed in the primates of Africa a very long time ago. It then spread all over the world such that there is no single continent in the world which has not had to deal with malaria. In the early 20th century, a link between malaria and mosquito parasites was established, and treatment of the disease became easier. In the 20th century, malaria was an epidemic in very many countries. The United States, for example, lost more than 6000 soldiers to malaria during the African and south pacific campaigns. To date, however, malaria still claims lives. Pregnant women and children below the age of five years are most prone to this disease, for biological reasons. Causes and transmission Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasites. This parasite is spread to humans mostly through bites from an infected mosquito. There are many types of Plasmodium, but only four are responsible for transmitting malaria. The Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent type of Plasmodium that causes malaria. This plasmodium is mostly dominant in Africa and is responsible for most of the deaths related to malaria. This also explains why Africa is leading in cases of malaria. Of the average of 200 million cases of malaria that are witnessed every year, almost a quarter hails from Africa. The Plasmodium parasite is mainly spread through bites from the female Anopheles mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are mostly referred to as the night biting mosquitoes due to the reason that they mostly bite between dusk and dawn. If these mosquitoes bite a person who is already infected with the malaria disease, it becomes infected and spreads it to other people when it bites. Malaria can however not be transmitted directly from person to person. It is not waterborne or airborne or transmittable by contact. After a mosquito bite, the parasite gets into the bloodstream. The first place that the parasite invests is the liver. The infection travels to the liver because that is where it develops and grows before entering again into the bloodstream, and consequently invading the red blood cells. Once in the red blood cells, the parasite grows and multiplies. A pattern is formed whereby at regular intervals, the infected blood cells burst open and release more parasites which in turn infect other red blood cells. The infected blood cells usually burst after every says 24-72 hours. Every time the process of bursting takes place, the patient gets symptoms of sweating, chills or a bout of fever. As more and more red blood cells burst, the body becomes weaker and weaker and more symptoms such as aching of joints begin to show. Few patients with malaria recover without proper treatment. Symptoms Malaria symptoms typically develop and begin to show within the first 10-30 days of infection. In some rare cases, often in more resistant individuals, the symptoms of malaria may not show until the first several months are over. Some malaria parasites may also enter the body and remain dormant for long periods of time (Murray 23). In early stages, the symptoms witnessed include; shaking, which ranges from moderate to severe, fever, sweating, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. As the disease develops, more symptoms begin to show. These symptoms include; anemia, diarrhea, muscle pain, bloody stools, Convulsions and finally comas. Very few people recover from malaria-related comas (Murray 56). Pregnant women are very prone to contacting malaria. In fact, statistics show that pregnant women are three times more likely to develop malaria than other non-pregnant women, considering all other conditions are constant. Infection of malaria during pregnancy has the potential to cause premature deliveries, miscarriages, congenital infections, low birth weight and also perinatal death. The symptoms in pregnant women are the same as the symptoms experienced by other people, only that in pregnant women, they are more adverse. Small children are also very prone to contracting malaria. This is because their immune systems are generally weak as compared to those of other adults. Malaria diagnosis, treatment, and prevention Accurate and rapid diagnosis of malaria is very important to the treatment of patients suffering from malaria in the community. It is very important especially in the management of the disease. In pregnant women and children, diagnosis is made with more caution. The diagnosis helps prevent the excessive use of antimalarial drugs and also under dosing. Diagnosis also helps health practitioners recommend a preferable treatment for malaria. There are two diagnoses which are mainly used. One is diagnosis based on the symptoms and signs of a disease (Neafsey 90). This one is called clinical diagnosis (Bhatt 89). The second form of diagnosis is the diagnosis based on detection of the parasites that caused the disease. This particular type of diagnosis is less preferred. The first one is the main form of diagnosis used by health practitioners. Once the diagnosis has been made, treatment comes in. treatment does not consider whether it was clinical or a parasitological method which was used for diagnosis. The patient should be treated with the most appropriate and the safest drug available. The goal should be effective malaria treatment within 24 hours (Bhatt 65). This is because delaying in treating a case on uncomplicated malaria results to a more complicated form of the disease which is associated with extreme fatalities. For such a disease which has the potential to be severe and very fatal, especially when it is as a result of Plasmodium falciparum, there is definitely a range of possible treatments. Patients who suffer from severe p. falciparum malaria cannot take oral medicine. They are treated by continuous intravenous infusion. Other available drugs for treatment include; atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone), chloroquine, quinine, quinidine and clindamycin (which is used together combination with quinine). Sometimes, health practitioners ask for the patients history with malaria and a last drug that had taken in treating the disease. This is so as to come up with the best mode of treatment for specific individuals. Some individuals react better to some drugs and worse to other drugs. As much as malaria is a treatable disease, prevention is still way much better than cure. Actually, it is estimated that were it not for the preventive measures that people are advised to use, malaria cases on an annual basis would be more than one billion. Considering the fact that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, the primary goal, therefore, becomes protecting people from mosquitoes. With regard to this, it is very important to ensure that our surrounding is not potential habitats for mosquitoes (Manyando 45). This should be done by clearing bushes and stagnant water collections. There are also some plants whose scent is known to repel mosquitoes. People are also advised to sleep under treated mosquito nets in order to protect themselves from mosquito bites at night. In conclusion, it is important to note that malaria is the single disease that has claimed the most lives in the history of mankind. Therefore, people should be very wary of it. Treatment of malaria has been discovered, and it is ready at the nearest clinical center to the proximity of our homes. The fight against malaria has been hard, but humanity is slowly winning to eradicate the disease. Preventive measures especially have been very helpful. It is important to acknowledge the information provided to us by health practitioners regarding the disease so as to prevent more and more cases of malaria. Work cited Bhatt, Samir, et al. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature 526.7572 (2015): 207-211. Manyando, Christine, Eric M. Njunju, and Umberto DAlessandro. Safety and efficacy of co-trimoxazole for treatment and prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review. PLos one 8.2 (2013): e56916. Murray, Christopher JL, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990â€Å"2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet 384.9947 (2014): 1005-1070. Neafsey, Daniel E., et al. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes. Science 347.6217 (2015): 1258522.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Prohibiting Cell Phones in College Classes - 1401 Words

In today’s society, people are being introduced to never-ending technology developments; the use of cellular phones is triggering a lot of debate in universities all over the United States. In a recent survey by Tindell and Bohlander (2012), over 97 percent of college student carry their cellular phones to class and use their cellular phones during lectures. Although cellular phones are prominently useful there have been a number of ramifications, which must be recognized within universities. Lectures are being interrupted. Texting is being used for cheating among college students. Undesirable pictures are being taken of students in dorms or at parties. In the past, cellular phones were primarily intended for security, emergencies, and†¦show more content†¦For example, social studies students studying elections can quickly determine percentages of electoral votes or other scenarios. Science classes can use them to perform calculations related to fieldwork (â€Å"Col leges,† para.3). Cellular phones can be used as a great security tool; however, college students should know that safety and security is a prime priority at universities across the country. There are many efforts being made to make sure that college students are safe on campus. With that said, it’s only in the lecture halls that is causing concern and distractions for professors and students. So, turning off your cell phone while in a lecture hall would not make a student feel any less safe. There are many emergency procedures that professors are trained and educated on. Cellular phones are convenient for many college students, but students who attend universities constantly have access to a phone in the lecture halls in case an emergency shall arise. Although cell phones might not physically harm students, they do have the capability of mentally harming a student. The law enforcements had to intervene at a school in Milwaukee because a bunch of students involved in a fight implemented their c ell phones to call in additional students to help fight. Cell phones are now being referred to at that school as â€Å"tools of violence† (Carvin, 2007). If a policy is enforced banning cell phone use in classrooms, then teachers will also respect the rules asShow MoreRelatedCampus Violence: Problem and Solution Essay990 Words   |  4 Pagesfour women were charged for the murder of other female students. Crime gradually characterizes the modern college experience. Despite security provided, crime and violence rates increased on school campuses. The number of cases increased from 40 during the 1980s to 79 in the 1990s and 83 since 2000. The reason for the increase remains unknown. However, the increase in crime rate occurred in college student enrollment within the previous 20 years. The arrests of females increased more than the arrestRead MoreHow to Write a Reading Response Essay1453 Words   |  6 Pagesin the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with the solution. A different version of that is to re-tell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: * On an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. In the conclusion, you could have the end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the call, or decides to let voicemailRead MoreTopics Involving Employment For Women, Women s Rights, And Domestic Violence / Sexual Assault1475 Words   |  6 Pagesgot married in 1972 to her husband Dennis and is still happily married to him today. Together, she and her husband have two sons. Pam obtained a high school degree from North High School and went on to take several classes at Bakersfield College. While attending Bakersfield College she took courses in accounting, word processing and other courses related to her job. Pam was fifteen years old when she got her first job working in a potato shed in Wasco, CA for the summer. Currently, Pam works asRead MoreUse of Social Media5872 Words   |  24 PagesLITERATURE, Kentucky Journal of Higher Education Policy and Practice: Vol. 1: Iss. 2, Article 7. Available at: This Peer Reviewed Articles and Commentaries is brought to you for free and open access by the College of Education at UKnowledge. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kentucky Journal of Higher Education Policy and Practice by an authorized administrator of UKnowledge. For more information, please contact Guy: The Use ofRead MoreResearch on Persuasive Techniques Used in Advertising Industry12297 Words   |  50 Pagesdescribe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. In the United States, many university journalism departments evolved into schools or colleges of mass communication or journalism and mass communication, as reflected in the names of two major academic organizations. In addition to studying practical skills of journalism, public relations or advertising, students also may major in massRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words   |  549 Pagesmust decide which trade-offs are warranted in a given situation. 1-1 Ch. 1: Accounting Information Systems: An Overview 1.3 You and a few of your classmates decided to become entrepreneurs. You came up with a great idea for a new mobile phone application that you think will make lots of money. Your business plan won second place in a local competition, and you are using the $10,000 prize to support yourselves as you start your company. a. Identify the key decisions you need to make toRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 Pages Indiana University; Chiang-Nan Chao, St. John’s University; Abbas Foroughi, University of Southern Indiana; Richard Gram, Worcester Polytechnic Institute; Georgia Miller, Indiana University-Purdue University at Columbus; Ezra Rhein, Brooklyn College; Robin Starnes, Texas AM University; Manouchehr Tabatabaei, Georgia Southern University; Nolan J. Taylor, Indiana University; and Patricia White, Troy University. Finally, each author extends their gratitude to the other four for their intellectRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagesfor details! Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live events, and view resources Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth EditionRead MorePractical Guide to Market Research62092 Words   |  249 16 The fee is  £35 a year, renewable annually. In your notifcation you will need to include: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Purpose (description of category of processing) Data subjects (people about whom data is processed) Data classes (types of data being processed) Recipients (to whom data may be disclosed) Quality standards Linked to ethical issues covered by the codes of practice is the question of quality standards in market research. Clearly research, if it is to be ofRead MoreChap 533156 Words   |  133 Pages They re called sports towels because their most popular use is for distribution in connection with major sporting events such as the Super Bowl, NCAA Final Four, Augusta National Golf Tournament and the U.S. Open Tennis Tournament. Towels with college, NBA and NFL team logos, and promotions for commercial products such as soft drinks, beer, fast food chains, etc., are also big sellers. The firm designs, knits, prints and embroiders towels. The firm knits all the towels it sells and tracks costs

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Analysis Of Hillbilly Elegy - 1023 Words

The authors brings a new perspective on the ability of surviving poverty and overcoming the odds. He illustrates society’s views on people who are from the Appalachia mountain area throughout the book. By reviling his accounts and struggles, he opens the eyes of the readers who view these individuals as lazy, inbreed, rednecks, buy giving them a glimpse of his life struggles. The book, Hillbilly Elegy was a simple story of a poverty-stricken boy who grew up surrounded by negativity. The author took notice of all the people, events, failures, and his surroundings and use these to help mold him into who he is today. He would use the mentorship and observation of his grandmother and later his grandfather, who would, started as a salvage†¦show more content†¦This tendency might make for psychological resilience, but it also makes it hard for Appalachians to look at themselves honestly† (Vance, 2016). This reference can be true with many of today’s youth who are stuck in poverty. These particular youth tend to look at issues from a different perspective. They do not want to stress on factors, which they little or no control of the situation. In their mind, they tend to block out and ignore problematic issue, which come their way. They hope the issues of drugs, alcohol, domestic violence, and poverty will eventually handle themselves and go away. The fact is they never go away, and the only way out of this cycle is education, a strong mind, and ultimately removal from the environment, which they grew up in. I know this cycle, and I have lived it. I know what it is to grow up like the author, because I can relate with him almost 100%. I know if it was not for the Army, I could have ended up just like everyone I know back in my hometown. It is hard to stay away from all the negative influences around an individual, but it is even harder not to repeat what was seen as a healthy relationship between a man a and a woman. This is where a strong mind is needed. An individual needs to take in all negative accounts and pledge to themselves not to let those same traits manifest in them, or they might also find themselves in anShow MoreRelatedHillbilly Elegy Analysis938 Words   |  4 Pagesglorify the good and ignore the bad in ourselves.† (20) J.D. Vance introduces his readers to a world which many didn’t know existed, the world of white working class people, known as hillbillies, living in Rust Belt towns. Vance gives an inside look by telling stories of his life that are common circumstances in the hillbilly society. But as he says in the quote above, humans, no matter their race, background, or hometown, have a tendency to stretch the truth. Often we avoid putting ourselves or thoseRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Hillbilly Elegy Essay1776 Words   |  8 Pagespoorest white American which describes themselves as hillbillies as they reside in the eastern Kentucky. In his personal analysis of c ulture in crisis of hillbillies, J.D. Vance tries to explain, in his memoir, Hillbilly Elegy, what goes on in the lives of people as the economy goes south in a culture that is culturally deceptive, family deceptive, and in a community, whose doctrine of loyalty is heavily guarded. Like every poor Scot-Irish hillbilly in his community, Vance came from being poor, likeRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Hillbilly Elegy1029 Words   |  5 PagesLiterary Analysis The memoir Hillbilly Elegy, written by J.D. Vance, is the remarkable story of a young man’s challenges of growing up in poverty. The book focuses on the difficulties that come along with living in Appalachia, and the family issues that go on as well. Living in poverty introduced Vance to a world filled with toxicity and violence. This unhealthy environment caused Vance to develop a conflict within himself, making him struggle with his self-identity. In Hillbilly Elegy, Vance usesRead MoreAnalysis Of Hillbilly Elegy1050 Words   |  5 PagesHillbilly Elegy Final Discussion The final reading of Hillbilly Elegy starts with J.D applying to law school. This was J.D’s goal, and I was so happy that he was about to achieve this. I found it interesting that J.D did not apply to Stanford Law School because to be admitted, you need a letter of recommendation from the dean from your undergraduate school. Vance did not apply because he didn’t know the dean from Ohio State. I think this says a great deal about how Vance views outsiders. I feelRead MoreAnalysis Of Hillbilly Elegy1430 Words   |  6 PagesSince the first page of Hillbilly Elegy by J.D. Vance, perseverance is prevalent. No matter what comes J.D. Vance’s way he always works through it. There are many ways people respond to the adversity in life, and there are many ways people respond each distinct time. Perseverance has been key in my life, not just J.D. Vance’s; I would argue every person in this world as well. Whether it be in the military, like Vance, school, sports, or a job, there is no hiding from adverse situations. J.D. VanceRead MoreHillbilly Elegy Analysis2115 Words   |  9 PagesThe book Hillbilly Elegy, A Memoir of A Family And Culture In Crisis written by J.D Vance is not like anything I have ever seen or read about. Vance begins his book by introducing the most important people around him, his family. Mamaw, Papaw and his sister Lindsey were his biggest support system and in many cases, his safe haven. In Middletown, Ohio where Vance spent the majority of his childhood was described as a town that didn’t have much money nor opportunity. What I learned from Vance was thatRead MoreHillbilly Elegy Analysis1175 Words   |  5 PagesI think the book â€Å"Hillbilly Elegy† is more sociological because they explained what people in Hillbilly Elegy go through. For example, â€Å"Jackson taught me that â€Å"hill people† and â€Å"poor people† usually meant the same thing. At Mamaw Blanton’s, we’d eat scrambled eggs, ham, fried potatoes, and biscuits for breakfast; fried bologna sandwiches for lunch; and soup and cornbread for dinner.† And hillbillies do not like or wear earrings. They explain how society is in Hilly Billy Elegy and how they hold themRead MoreHillbilly Elegy Analysis1240 Words   |  5 PagesWhen Mamaw and Papaw were teenagers back in 1947, they got married and it was the beginning of a long and adventurous marriage. In the first seven chapters of Hillbilly Elegy by J.D. Vance, Mamaw and Papaw have a very unique relationship. Mamaw and Papaw are somewhat abusive towards each other due to Papaw’s drinking problem. Not only Mamaw and Papaw’s relationship suffers because of their behavior, their family as well is very dysfunctional because of Mamaw and Papaw’s relationship. Many violentRead MoreAnalysis Of Hillbilly Elegy By Jd Vance1600 Words   |  7 Pagessought after by professionals all over the world. Developing these three skills can be a difficult process, however when all three are present in a person, that person can become a valuable asset for any company or business. In JD Vance’s memoir, Hillbilly Elegy, we see how he develops these important traits throughout his life. Through his struggles and victories, we the reader learn that no matter the situation you are placed in, you can succeed if you develop 3 important skills- those being persistenceRead MoreAnalysis Of Evicted By Matthew Desmond, And Hillbilly Elegy1370 Words   |  6 Pagesby Matthew Desmond, and Hillbilly Elegy, by J.D Vance, these problems were brought to the forefront in their own unique way. Evicted focused on the lower class level of urban poverty in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The people that were highlighted in this book were struggling to make ends mee t every month, and keep food on the table. Many of the families that we read about were evicted countless times, and struggled to stay out of local homeless shelters. Hillbilly Elegy focused more on the struggles